The decomposition rates of OM and crop residue depend primarily on chemical composition and on factors that affect the soil environment. It influences the structure and texture of soil and thereby activity of the microorganisms. The most important factors which affect / influence the microbial flora of the rhizosphere or rhizosphere effect are: soil type & its moisture, soil amendments, soil PH, proximity of root with soil… These bacteria could fix nitrogen, in time multiplied, and as a result released oxygen into the atmosphere. It is one of the most important factors Affecting Formation of Soil. Factors Controlling Residue Decomposition and Soil Quality. Soil microbiology is the study of microorganisms in soil, their functions, and how they affect soil properties.It is believed that between two and four billion years ago, the first ancient bacteria and microorganisms came about on Earth's oceans. This process is an essential part of the construction of any structure, as it strengthens the soil. Kilbertus G. The changes in the soil microflora as a result of introducing various organic substances (gelatin, chitin, cellulose and beech sawdust) into the soil were studied. When the water in the soil freezes, it expands and opens up soil particles creating air spaces. These airspaces remain even after the water thaws allowing more oxygen and soil organism activities. Most studies in soil microbiology have been concerned with either specific groups of the soil microflora or specific activities such as nitrifi- cation, organic matter transformations, or repression of plant pathogens. Water Movement. 6. Factors affecting microbial flora of the Rhizosphere / Rhizosphere Effect. Climatic components like temperature and rainfall / precipitation are the major contributing factors influencing the effect of climate. One of the factors affecting soil structure is water movement. Soil Organic Matter The organic matter in soil being the chief source of energy and food for most of the soil organisms, it has great influence on the microbial population. Soil microorganisms play a major role in the synthesis and degradation of crop residues into SOM. Factors affecting Compaction of soil. Compaction of the soil is the process where the dry density of soil is increased by reducing air content or air voids present in the soil. Influence of external factors on the composition of the soil microflora. factors that influence the activity of the microbial population in soil. Many factors influence the degree with which the soil is compacted. Soils form from the interplay of five main factors namely Parent Material, Time, Climate, Relief, and Organisms. The work was supplemented by electron-microscopic observations. 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