Irrigation is the process of applying controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals. Historically, it was the basis for economies and societies across the globe, from Asia to the Southwestern United States. The door had been tied shut with a length of nylon, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Château_du_Pin, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pedley,_California, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carlsbad,_New_Mexico, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wenonah_High_School, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medieval_gardening, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Coast_Botanic_Garden, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Misión_El_Descanso, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oryza_sativa, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Lift_Station. survey. We have almost 200 lists of words from topics as varied as types of butterflies, jackets, currencies, vegetables and knots! Drip (or micro) irrigation, also known as trickle irrigation, functions as its name suggests. These were replaced by hydraulic systems (T-L Irrigation) and electric-motor-driven systems (Reinke, Valley, Zimmatic). While floodwater harvesting belongs to the accepted irrigation methods, rainwater harvesting is usually not considered as a form of irrigation. In addition to underground canals, the Sinhalese were the first to build completely artificial reservoirs to store water. Some 2.8 billion people currently live in water-scarce areas.[48]. After sufficient irrigation has been applied to one strip of the field, the hose is removed, the water drained from the system, and the assembly rolled either by hand or with a purpose-built mechanism, so that the sprinklers are moved to a different position across the field. The process is known as fertigation. Spray irrigation relies on a series of hoses and sprayers or sprinklers – you’re probably familiar with this from automatic lawn-watering systems. Irrigation also has other uses in crop production, including frost protection, suppressing weed growth in grain fields and preventing soil consolidation. A system of pumping stations, canals, weirs and gates allows it to increase or decrease the water level in a network of ditches and thereby control the water table. ", Hukkinen, Janne, Emery Roe, and Gene I. Rochlin. The Hohokam constructed an assortment of simple canals combined with weirs in their various agricultural pursuits. Some land requires irrigation or drainage before it can be used for any agricultural production, while other land profits from either practice to increase production. Irrigation and drainage, artificial application of water to land and artificial removal of excess water from land, respectively. [29], By 2012, the area of irrigated land had increased to an estimated total of 3,242,917 km2 (801 million acres), which is nearly the size of India. It was installed in irrigation tanks[by whom?] The water makes their crops grow. Nach der Irrigation haben Sie die Möglichkeit, auf Ihre gewohnte Beutelversorgung zu verzichten und stattdessen einen Stomaverschluss, eine Stomakappe oder einen Minibeutel zu tragen. Micro-irrigation, also called localized irrigation, low volume irrigation, low-flow irrigation, or trickle irrigation, is an irrigation method with lower pressure and flow than a traditional sprinkler system. Our new online dictionaries for schools provide a safe and appropriate environment for children. Most of the world’s major irrigation systems receive water from great rivers that have their tributaries in snow-clad or rain-swept mountains. A derivative of this system, called gentle spray irrigation, is used in areas where wind, a lack of humidity, or high heat levels may increase water waste during irrigation. Where water levels from the irrigation source permit, the levels are controlled by dikes, usually plugged by soil. Irrigation systems are built to provide irrigation. Irrigation began in Nubia some time between the third and second millennia BCE. Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache. Sections of the landscape will usually be divided by microclimate, type of plant material, and type of irrigation equipment. irrigation Bedeutung, Definition irrigation: 1. the practice of supplying land with water so that crops and plants will grow: 2. the practice…. The most important element in any irrigation system is a dependable water supply. In countries where humid air sweeps through at night, water can be obtained by condensation onto cold surfaces. To supply with water by means of pipes, sprinklers, ditches, or streams. L'irrigation à pivot central est une forme d'irrigation aérienne, reproduisant une pluie artificielle. [27][need quotation to verify], The oldest known irrigation canals in the Americas are in the desert of northern Peru in the Zaña valley near the hamlet of Nanchoc. [3] In contrast, agriculture that relies only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed. As of November 2019[update] a Glasgow-based startup has helped a farmer in Scotland to establish edible saltmarsh crops irrigated with sea water. Each zone will cover a designated portion of the landscape. I’m sure a lot of people would agree that we live in strange times. Automatically moving wheeled systems known as traveling sprinklers may irrigate areas such as small farms, sports fields, parks, pastures, and cemeteries unattended. More efficient than manual watering, irrigation systems are affordable and easy to set-up. The irrigated area is surrounded by a berm and the water is delivered according to a schedule set by a local irrigation district. in this methodology, water is either dripped onto the soil surface on top of the roots or directly to the root zone. The International Water Management Institute has worked in India, Pakistan, Vietnam, Ghana, Ethiopia, Mexico and other countries on various projects aimed at assessing and reducing risks of wastewater irrigation. Irrigation may be defined as the science of the artificial application of water to the land in order to fulfill the water requirements of the crops throughout the crop period for the full nourishment of the crops. • Terms with strike-through are non-preferred usage. [21] By the 2nd century AD, during the Han Dynasty, the Chinese also used chain pumps which lifted water from a lower elevation to a higher one. Fog collectors are also made of canvas or foil sheets. ‘sprinkler irrigation systems’ 2 Medicine The process of washing out an organ or wound with a continuous flow of water or medication. The system comprises a network of vertical wells and gently sloping tunnels driven into the sides of cliffs and of steep hills to tap groundwater. [20], The oldest known hydraulic engineers of China were Sunshu Ao (6th century BCE) of the Spring and Autumn period and Ximen Bao (5th century BCE) of the Warring States period, both of whom worked on large irrigation projects. This type of system is known as LEPA (Low Energy Precision Application). Lower water pressures are usually needed than for most other types of systems, with the exception of low energy center pivot systems and surface irrigation systems, and the system can be designed for uniformity throughout a field or for precise water delivery to individual plants in a landscape containing a mix of plant species. Irrigation is the process of applying water to the crops artificially to fulfil their water requirements. It makes the irrigation process more efficient and workers can concentrate on other important farming tasks. during the reign of King Parakrama Bahu (1153–1186 CE). Significant health hazards can result from using water loaded with pathogens in this way, especially if people eat raw vegetables that have been irrigated with the polluted water. A special form of irrigation using surface water is spate irrigation, also called floodwater harvesting. Cities provide lucrative markets for fresh produce, so are attractive to farmers. Large-scale agriculture was practiced, with an extensive network of canals used for the purpose of irrigation. Their reliance on agricultural strategies based on canal irrigation, vital in their less-than-hospitable desert environment and arid climate, provided the basis for the aggregation of rural populations into stable urban centers. 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